White to yellow powder. Soluble in water. Chemical. CAS: 53-84-9. Formula: C21H27N7O14P2 . xH2O. MW: 663.43 (anhydrous basis). NAD+, known more formally as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a signaling molecule as well as a cofactor or substrate for many enzymes. It acts as an oxidizing agent, accepting electrons from other molecules while being converted to its reduced form, NADH. NAD+ is also essential for the activity of several enzymes, including poly(ADP)-ribose polymerases and cADP-ribose synthases. For example, it is used by some sirtuins to mediate protein deacetylation, producing O-acetyl-ADP-ribose and nicotinamide as well as the deacetylated protein. NAD+ is an important player and factor to research metabolic pathways and pathologies.